Cyber crimes can be defined as the unlawful acts where the computer is used either as a tool or a target or both. The term is a general term that covers crimes like phishing, credit card frauds, bank robbery, illegal downloading, industrial espionage, child pornography, kidnapping children via chat rooms, scams, cyber terrorism, creation and/or distribution of viruses, Spam and so on.
Cyber crime is a broad term that is used to define criminal activity in which computers or computer networks are a tool, a target, or a place of criminal activity and include everything from electronic cracking to denial of service attacks. It also covers the traditional crimes in which computers or networks are used to enable the illicit activity.


Unauthorized access means any kind of access without the permission of either of the rightful or person in charge of the computer, computer system or computer network. Hacking means an illegal intrusion into a computer system and/or network. Every act committed towards breaking into a computer and/or network is hacking. Hackers write or use ready-made computer programs to attack the target computer. They possess the desire to destruct and they get the kick out of such destruction. Some hackers hack for personal monetary gains, such as to stealing the credit card information, transferring money from various bank accounts to their own account followed by withdrawal of money. Government websites are the most targeted sites for the hackers

In general terms, stalking can be termed as the repeated acts of harassment targeting the victim such as following the victim, making harassing phone calls, killing the victims pet, vandalizing victims property, leaving written messages or objects. Stalking may be followed by serious violent acts such as physical harm to the victim. Cyber Stalking means repeated acts of harassment or threatening behaviour of the cyber criminal towards the victim by using internet services. Both kind of Stalkers i.e., Online & Offline – have desire to control the victims life

Viruses are the programs that have the capability to infect other programs and make copies of itself and spread into other program. Programs that multiply like viruses but spread from computer to computer are called as worms. These are malicious software that attach themselves to other software. Virus, worms, Trojan Horse, Time bomb, Logic Bomb, Rabbit and Bacterium are the malicious. Viruses usually affect the data on a computer, either by altering or deleting it. On the other hand worms merely make functional copies of themselves and do this repeatedly till they eat up all the available.

Trojan Horse is a program that acts like something useful but do the things that are quiet damping. Trojans come in two parts, a Client part and a Server part. When the victim (unknowingly) runs the server on its machine, the attacker will then use the Client to connect to the Server and start using the Trojan. TCP/IP protocol is the usual protocol type used for communications, but some functions of the Trojans use the UDP protocol as well.


Cyber crimes are a new class of crimes which are increasing day by day due to extensive use of internet these days. To combat the crimes related to internet The Information Technology Act, 2000 was enacted with prime objective to create an enabling environment for commercial use of I.T. The IT Act specifies the acts which have been made punishable. The Indian Penal Code, 1860 has also been amended to take into its purview cyber crimes.

The various offenses related to internet which have been made punishable under the IT Act and the IPC are enumerated below

1. Cyber crimes under the IT Act :

  • Tampering with Computer source documents - Sec.65
  • Hacking with Computer systems, Data alteration - Sec.66
  • Un-authorised access to protected system Sec.70 Breach of Confidentiality and Privacy - Sec.72
  • Publishing false digital signature certificates - Sec.73

2. Cyber Crimes under IPC and Special Laws :

  • Sending threatening messages by email - Sec 503 IPC
  • Sending defamatory messages by email - Sec 499 IPC
  • Forgery of electronic records - Sec 463 IPC
  • Bogus websites, cyber frauds - Sec 420 IPC
  • Email spoofing - Sec 463 IPC
  • Web-Jacking - Sec. 383 IPC
  • E-Mail Abuse - Sec.500 IPC

3. Cyber Crimes under the Special Acts:

  • Online sale of Drugs under Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act
  • Online sale of Arms Act


The complaint regarding commission of cyber crime can be made to the in-charge of the cyber crime cells which are present almost in every city. To file a complaint alleging commission of a cyber crime the following documents must be provided:

1.In case of hacking the following information should be provided:

  • Server Logs
  • Copy of defaced web page in soft copy as well as hard copy format, if your website is defaced
  • If data is compromised on your server or computer or any other network equipment, soft copy of original data and soft copy of compromised data.
  • Access control mechanism details i.e.- who had what kind of the access to the compromised system

2. In case of e-mail abuse, vulgar e-mail etc. the following information should be provided:

  • Extract the extended headers of offending e-mail and bring soft copy as well hard copy of offending e-mail.
  • Please do not delete the offending e-mail from your e-mail box.
  • Please save the copy of offending e-mail on your computer's hard drive.